# 9.18. Array Functions and Operators

표 9-47 shows the operators available for array types.

표 9-47. Array Operators

OperatorDescriptionExampleResult
= equalARRAY[1.1,2.1,3.1]::int[] = ARRAY[1,2,3]t
<> not equalARRAY[1,2,3] <> ARRAY[1,2,4]t
< less thanARRAY[1,2,3] < ARRAY[1,2,4]t
> greater thanARRAY[1,4,3] > ARRAY[1,2,4]t
<= less than or equalARRAY[1,2,3] <= ARRAY[1,2,3]t
>= greater than or equalARRAY[1,4,3] >= ARRAY[1,4,3]t
@> containsARRAY[1,4,3] @> ARRAY[3,1]t
<@ is contained byARRAY[2,7] <@ ARRAY[1,7,4,2,6]t
&& overlap (have elements in common)ARRAY[1,4,3] && ARRAY[2,1]t
|| array-to-array concatenationARRAY[1,2,3] || ARRAY[4,5,6]{1,2,3,4,5,6}
|| array-to-array concatenationARRAY[1,2,3] || ARRAY[[4,5,6],[7,8,9]]{{1,2,3},{4,5,6},{7,8,9}}
|| element-to-array concatenation3 || ARRAY[4,5,6]{3,4,5,6}
|| array-to-element concatenationARRAY[4,5,6] || 7{4,5,6,7}

Array comparisons compare the array contents element-by-element, using the default B-tree comparison function for the element data type. In multidimensional arrays the elements are visited in row-major order (last subscript varies most rapidly). If the contents of two arrays are equal but the dimensionality is different, the first difference in the dimensionality information determines the sort order. (This is a change from versions of PostgreSQL prior to 8.2: older versions would claim that two arrays with the same contents were equal, even if the number of dimensions or subscript ranges were different.)

See 8.15절 for more details about array operator behavior. See 11.2절 for more details about which operators support indexed operations.

표 9-48 shows the functions available for use with array types. See 8.15절 for more information and examples of the use of these functions.

표 9-48. Array Functions

FunctionReturn TypeDescriptionExampleResult
array_append(anyarray, anyelement) anyarrayappend an element to the end of an arrayarray_append(ARRAY[1,2], 3){1,2,3}
array_cat(anyarray, anyarray) anyarrayconcatenate two arraysarray_cat(ARRAY[1,2,3], ARRAY[4,5]){1,2,3,4,5}
array_ndims(anyarray) intreturns the number of dimensions of the arrayarray_ndims(ARRAY[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]])2
array_dims(anyarray) textreturns a text representation of array's dimensionsarray_dims(ARRAY[[1,2,3], [4,5,6]])[1:2][1:3]
array_fill(anyelement, int[], [, int[]]) anyarrayreturns an array initialized with supplied value and dimensions, optionally with lower bounds other than 1array_fill(7, ARRAY[3], ARRAY[2])[2:4]={7,7,7}
array_length(anyarray, int) intreturns the length of the requested array dimensionarray_length(array[1,2,3], 1)3
array_lower(anyarray, int) intreturns lower bound of the requested array dimensionarray_lower('[0:2]={1,2,3}'::int[], 1)0
array_position(anyarray, anyelement [, int]) intreturns the subscript of the first occurrence of the second argument in the array, starting at the element indicated by the third argument or at the first element (array must be one-dimensional)array_position(ARRAY['sun','mon','tue','wed','thu','fri','sat'], 'mon')2
array_positions(anyarray, anyelement) int[]returns an array of subscripts of all occurrences of the second argument in the array given as first argument (array must be one-dimensional)array_positions(ARRAY['A','A','B','A'], 'A'){1,2,4}
array_prepend(anyelement, anyarray) anyarrayappend an element to the beginning of an arrayarray_prepend(1, ARRAY[2,3]){1,2,3}
array_remove(anyarray, anyelement) anyarrayremove all elements equal to the given value from the array (array must be one-dimensional)array_remove(ARRAY[1,2,3,2], 2){1,3}
array_replace(anyarray, anyelement, anyelement) anyarrayreplace each array element equal to the given value with a new valuearray_replace(ARRAY[1,2,5,4], 5, 3){1,2,3,4}
array_to_string(anyarray, text [, text]) textconcatenates array elements using supplied delimiter and optional null stringarray_to_string(ARRAY[1, 2, 3, NULL, 5], ',', '*')1,2,3,*,5
array_upper(anyarray, int) intreturns upper bound of the requested array dimensionarray_upper(ARRAY[1,8,3,7], 1)4
cardinality(anyarray) intreturns the total number of elements in the array, or 0 if the array is emptycardinality(ARRAY[[1,2],[3,4]])4
string_to_array(text, text [, text]) text[]splits string into array elements using supplied delimiter and optional null stringstring_to_array('xx~^~yy~^~zz', '~^~', 'yy'){xx,NULL,zz}
unnest(anyarray) setof anyelementexpand an array to a set of rowsunnest(ARRAY[1,2])
1
2
(2 rows)
unnest(anyarray, anyarray [, ...]) setof anyelement, anyelement [, ...]expand multiple arrays (possibly of different types) to a set of rows. This is only allowed in the FROM clause; see 7.2.1.4절unnest(ARRAY[1,2],ARRAY['foo','bar','baz'])
1    foo
2    bar
NULL baz
(3 rows)

In array_position and array_positions, each array element is compared to the searched value using IS NOT DISTINCT FROM semantics.